Posts Tagged ‘Sukkot’

This month, many will gather around the dinner table to celebrate Thanksgiving. For many Americans, the Thanksgiving meal includes seasonal dishes such as roast turkey with stuffing, green bean casserole, cranberry sauce, mashed potatoes, yams and pumpkin pie.

For years we have been taught that in 1620 the Pilgrims sailed from England on the Mayflower to escape religious persecution and landed at what became Plymouth, Massachusetts. Over 1/2 of them died during the winter of 1620—even though by local standards, that winter was a fairly mild one. The Plymouth settlers were inexperienced at farming and not used to being exposed to the elements. The next year, with the help of the local natives, the pilgrims celebrated their first good harvest and invited a group of Native American allies to celebrate with them. The feast lasted three days. And ever since then, as the story goes, Americans have celebrated Thanksgiving. Unfortunately, this is a celebration that is based on a lie.

So what’s the true version of what happened?

The notion that the first Thanksgiving was some kind of cross-cultural love-fest, as it has been portrayed, has even been disputed by historians, who say that the settlers and the Indians were brought together more by their mutual need than by genuine friendship. The two struggling communities were never more than wary allies against other tribes. More like, “the enemy of my enemy is my friend”.

The colonists were actually contemptuous of the Indians, who they regarded as uncivilized, paganistic heathens, and the fragile early peace between Native Americans and the early settlers would soon unravel into a horrific slaughter. When their “Native American allies” were celebrating their own green corn festival, a band of Puritans descended on their village and shot, clubbed and burned alive over 700 native men, women and children.

This slaughter, according to Robert Jensen, a professor at the University of Texas at Austin, was the real origin of Thanksgiving—so proclaimed in 1637 by Massachusetts Bay Governor John Winthrop in gratitude for God’s destruction of the defenseless Pequot village. Thereafter massacres of the Indians were routinely followed by “days of thanksgiving.”

Native Americans and Israel

Although many of the early European settlers saw the Native Americans as savages (and treated them accordingly), others believed them to be the lost ten tribes of Israel. William Penn, for whom the US Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is named, was one who believed strongly that Native Americans came from the stock of Israelites. He was well known for his good relationships and successful treaties with the natives.

Although many Jewish scholars and historians have disputed this for years, the similarities between Israelite and Native American culture are remarkable:

They both worship one God. (Or one Great Spirit) Both groups were minorities in the face of enemy oppression—The Native Americans faced off against the expanding European colonists, while the Israelites were crushed by the powers of the Assyrians and Babylonians. Both groups have faced slavery, exile and the threat of genocide throughout history.

But what I find particularly remarkable is the similarities between Native American feasts and celebrations and God’s feasts set in the Bible. Both the Native American celebrations and the biblical Fall Feast Days typically coincide in the late summer and early fall and are tied to the ripening and harvesting of crops. They are both marked with dancing, feasting, fasting and religious observations. Activities vary from tribe to tribe, but the common thread is giving proper thanks to God.

In 1973 Dr. Joseph Mahan, an expert in ancient Indian ethnology of the southeastern Indians of the United States, discovered that the Yuchi tribe of Florida and Georgia amazingly showed strong evidence that they had contact with some form of Judaism in historic times. They had a custom that every year on the fifteenth day of the sacred month of harvest, in the fall, for eight days they lived in “booths” with roofs open to the sky, covered with branches and leaves and foliage. During this festival, they danced around the sacred fire, and called upon the name of God.

The ancient Israelites had virtually the identical custom in many respects. In the harvest season in the fall, on the 15th day of the seventh month, (Tishri) Jews and Torah observant believers celebrate the festival of booths for eight days. (Also known as the Feast of Tabernacles, or Sukkot in Hebrew) They live in temporary booths, covered with branches and leaves from “goodly trees”. This festival, and many others, goes back to the time of Moses and the Exodus from ancient Egypt. (See Leviticus 23)

Dr. Cyrus Gordon, of Brandeis University in Boston, was privileged to sit in on one of the fall harvest festivals of the Yuchi Indians, and listened to their chants, songs, and sacred ceremonies. An expert in Hebrew, Minoan, and many Middle Eastern languages, he was incredulous as he listened to the chants. He exclaimed to his companion, “They are speaking the Hebrew names for God!”

How is it that two totally separated peoples observe the identical custom? And since it has been a long standing custom during Sukkot to invite friends and family to share a meal inside their Sukkah, or shelter, is it possible that it was the Native Americans who invited the Pilgrims to celebrate their own fall harvest feast, and not the other way around?


In any civilization, error can be present, and false spirituality can arise. While I am not suggesting that Thanksgiving should become the occasion for a yearly guilt trip, we would do well to remember, as we sit around the bountiful table with our family and friends, the high price the first indigenous Americans paid for European expansion into their territories. Only by openly acknowledging the sins of our collective past, is it possible to proceed toward a future that all Americans can feel thankful for.

We need to de-program ourselves from arrogantly thinking that God would only want to reveal himself (and his laws) to just one part of his creation. We need to realize that God wants ALL of his creation to know him as Father, Creator and supplier of all our needs.

It is also worthy to note that the Native Americans themselves did not choose to identity themselves with the oppressed Jews, but outside powers did that for them.

It is clear that Native Americans possess a special spirituality, that should remind us of the holy teachings given by God—if we would only study God’s holy word and listen to his small, still voice.


This week signaled the beginning of Sukkot, (Feast of Tabernacles) and many will be attending the Feast at various campgrounds around the country.

Each of the three major festivals, the sacred seasons sanctified by God, are designated in Scripture. And each one possess a special quality even today. Passover, commemorating the Exodus from Egypt, is known as “the time of our freedom;” this is the holiday of national emancipation. Shavuot, the anniversary of the Sinai Revelation, is “the time of the giving of our Torah.” During these holidays, the entire nation of Israel made the pilgrimage up to Jerusalem and the Holy Temple.

The Lord said to Moses, “Say to the Israelites: ‘On the fifteenth day of the seventh month the Lord’s Festival of Tabernacles begins, and it lasts for seven days. The first day is a sacred assembly; do no regular work. For seven days present food offerings to the Lord, and on the eighth day hold a sacred assembly and present a food offering to the Lord. It is the closing special assembly; do no regular work. (These are the Lord’s appointed festivals, which you are to proclaim as sacred assemblies for bringing food offerings to the Lord—the burnt offerings and grain offerings, sacrifices and drink offerings required for each day. These offerings are in addition to those for the Lord’s Sabbaths and in addition to your gifts and whatever you have vowed and all the freewill offerings you give to the Lord.) “So beginning with the fifteenth day of the seventh month, after you have gathered the crops of the land, celebrate the festival to the Lord for seven days; the first day is a day of sabbath rest, and the eighth day also is a day of sabbath rest. On the first day you are to take branches from luxuriant trees—from palms, willows and other leafy trees—and rejoice before the Lord your God for seven days. Celebrate this as a festival to the Lord for seven days each year. This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come; celebrate it in the seventh month. Live in temporary shelters for seven days: All native-born Israelites are to live in such shelters so your descendants will know that I had the Israelites live in temporary shelters when I brought them out of Egypt. I am the Lord your God.” (Lev. 23:33-44)

It is appropriate that the Festival of Sukkot is referred to as “the time of our joy.” For although it is marked by the observance of special, highly visible commandments such as the “four species” (referred to by the Jewish people as the lulav) and dwelling in huts, commemorating a specific period in Jewish history, (When Israel dwelt in huts in the wilderness) nonetheless, the central theme of this season is the pure joy of having a relationship with our Creator.

Now, some sages have stated that those original “huts” of that generation were actually God’s Clouds of Glory, which He spread over Israel in His protection and Divine grace. (BT Sukkah 11:B; Rashi) Whether or not this statement is taken literally is irrelevant—for what it symbolizes is a concept that not only personifies the very essence of this holiday, but the essence of our faith in God as well.

That is why Sukkot is marked by such great joy in Israel. Of all the sacred seasons that God commanded Israel to observe, the festival of Tabernacles has the strongest implications for the nations of the world. Even today, vast numbers of Gentiles identify with the holiday of Sukkot, and converge on Jerusalem just to be in the holy city at this time of year. It is as if their heartstrings are pulled by some invisible force.

And yet here in the United States Sukkot has become more like so many of the Christian music festivals—complete with all the venders and money changers profiting from those attending. Is this any different than when Jesus chased away the money changers from the Temple? (Matthew 21:12-13)

For that reason we observe the Feast at home. We stay home and study the Scriptures and do the best we can to capture the spirit and joy of the Feast.

Notice that the Scripture commands us to OBSERVE His feasts, not just ATTEND His feasts. We are commanded to observe the Sabbath and the festivals, even if we are unable to attend a service. It isn’t ideal, but when one is unable to attend the Feast or Sabbath services during times of sickness or other hardship, one can still observe them at home.

God intends that we experience the Feast of Tabernacles in a place that He has chosen. He expects us to attend the Feast when feasible, but it is possible to ATTEND the Feast and not properly OBSERVE the Feast. I’m afraid that at times some have treated the Feast as they would a music festival or vacation—simply time away from home and the normal schedule.

Having observed the Feast at home, I can tell you that when you’re alone with your family, you are forced to consider the spiritual meaning of the Feast in a different way. I am not advocating that you stay away from attending God’s festival at one of the many campgrounds, but I am happy that I learned to observe the Feast before ever attending the Feast. And I believe it made a difference.

I sincerely encourage you to observe the Feast. And if you feel the need to attend the Feast, remember, it’s not a vacation, or a music festival, but a holy assembly. It should be the highlight of your year. Above all, I pray that this Feast will be spiritually rewarding and bring you great joy—indeed, the greatest joy you’ve ever known! Don’t just attend the Feast this year, but make sure you also observe it as God commanded.

Sukkot, also known as the Feast of Tabernacles, is one of the Fall Feasts celebrated on the 15th of Tishrei on the Hebrew calendar. This year, the seven-day Sukkot period will begin at sundown on October 13th. Sukkot is an important part of the Jewish experience. Historically many important events have occurred during Sukkot, including King Solomon’s dedication of the First Temple of Jerusalem. The Sukkot holiday finds its origin in a Biblical mandate. In TORAH, God commands that the Jews must live in temporary outdoor structures for seven days in remembrance of the Israelites who fled from Egypt with Moses:

So beginning with the fifteenth day of the seventh month, after you have gathered the crops of the land, celebrate the festival to the Lord for seven days; the first day is a day of rest, and the eighth day also is a day of rest. On the first day you are to take choice fruit from the trees, and palm fronds, leafy branches and poplars, and rejoice before the Lord your God… All native-born Israelites are to live in booths so your descendants will know that I had the Israelites live in booths when I brought them out of Egypt. –  Leviticus 23:39-43

In this passage, God commands us to build ‘booths’ (temporary shelters) and live in them during the festival of Sukkot. These temporary structures are known as “sukkah,” and they can range in various sizes. A kosher sukkah must be constructed with three walls with one wall used as a door. (That’s why most traditional sukkahs have four walls including the door) The roof must be made from natural organic materials and you must be able to see the sky through the roof as a reminder of the promise that God made to Abraham to make his descendants more numerous than the stars in the heavens. Without the opening in the top, the sukkah is not considered kosher. Traditionally, Jewish families decorate the sukkah with a variety of decorations including homemade ornaments, paintings, and streamers. Often decorations are inspired by harvest foods and the seven species of Israel mentioned in Deuteronomy: grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, dates, wheat and barley.

Sukkot is not only a celebration of the harvest, it also celebrates God’s dwelling with humanity. It is this element which most clearly shows the Messianic significance. When Solomon built the first temple, it was on Sukkot that the Spirit of God (the Shekinah Glory) descended upon it.  God came to dwell with man visibly in the Temple on the day that God Himself set aside to mark His dwelling with Man. This is one of the reasons many believe that Yeshua was born during Sukkot.

There are other reasons for this as well. We know that when Yeshua was born, there were shepherds tending to their flocks. The particular area where these shepherds were watching their flocks was the place they kept the lambs that would be used for the Passover sacrifices. These flocks were not out in the open fields during the winter as some Christians believe. We know from historical records that these lambs were taken into a protective corral from November through February. So that narrows the timing of His birth down a bit for us.

Next, we know that when Mary and Joseph came to Bethlehem, there was no place for them to stay. Why would that be? Traditional thought has suggested that it was because everyone was out and about registering for the census that Rome had mandated. However, that actually plays a very minor part in this, because the census was not something that had to be done by a specific date. We know from recent discoveries that these censuses went on for quite some time – in many cases over several years. So, it isn’t likely that they were rushing to Bethlehem in order to register. So why would Joseph risk a long, hard, dangerous journey with a wife about to give birth?

Three of the festivals are what were called “Pilgrimage” festivals. On those three occasions it was required for the men and their families to journey to Jerusalem. In other words, it was required by God to be in Jerusalem on those days. Since they would have been going to Jerusalem from Bethlehem for the festival, it would be reasonable to assume that they would make the relatively short side trip to attend to the census registration as well. But when they arrived, everyone in Israel was heading to Jerusalem; and with Bethlehem was only a few miles away, naturally, all the rooms were taken.

We also know that Mary’s relative, Elizabeth conceived John while her husband, Zechariah, who was a priest, was serving in the Temple. We’re told that Mary conceived six months later, meaning that Yeshua would have been born six months after John. If all this is true, then interestingly enough, John, whom Yeshua referred to as “The Elijah who was to come” before the Messiah, would have been born during Passover. In fact, it is still traditional, during the Passover Seder today, for the youngest child to open the door in anticipation of Elijah’s arrival. Exactly six months after Passover is Sukkot. This is when Yeshua would have been born – six months after John. John, the “Elijah” came when God appointed for Him to come; and Yeshua came six months later!

Sukkot has long been associated by the rabbi’s with the coming of Messiah, for many reasons. One of them is the fact that Scripture tells us that people from the nations of the world will come up to celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles with the Jewish people in Jerusalem during the Millennial Kingdom: “Then…all nations of the earth…will go up year after year to worship the King, the LORD Almighty, and to celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles” (Zechariah 14:16). Regardless of whether Sukkot was the time of his birth or not, it will definitely find its full prophetic fulfillment when Yeshua comes to establish his long awaited kingdom. And all people who have been redeemed by his glorious sacrifice will gladly celebrate Sukkot in all its fullness – for God will then dwell among us forever!

The seventh day of this Sukkot is known as Hoshana Rabba – the Great Save. Because Sukkot was a festival celebrating the final harvest of the year, it was customary to thank God during this time for the produce of that year and to ask Him to provide the needed winter rains for next year’s harvest. There were many special observances and traditions developed along this theme. The most spectacular of these was the water drawing ceremony.

Water was an important part of Sukkot. Before the festival, the Rabbis taught on every passage in Scripture dealing with water. During the water drawing ceremony, the High Priest would recite Isaiah 12:1-3: “And in that day you shall say, ‘O LORD, I will praise you: though you were angry with me, your anger is turned away, and you have comforted me. Behold, God is my salvation; I will trust, and not be afraid: for the LORD is my strength and my song; he also is become my salvation.’ Therefore with joy shall you draw water out of the wells of salvation.”

In the Middle East during the first century water was often scarce. The people were very much aware of their dependence on God for the rains that were so vital for the preservation of life. No wonder the prophets came to see rain as a symbol of salvation and the work of God’s Holy Spirit: “I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean.” (Ezekiel 36:25)

We can now more fully appreciate the events recorded on one particular Sukkot – when Yeshua stood in the Temple on this great day of the feast and cried out: “If anyone thirsts, let him come to me and drink. He who believes in me, as the Scripture has said, out of his heart will flow rivers of living water.” (John 7:37-38)

Yeshua’s promise to give living water prompted even greater debate during the last day of the festival of Sukkot. The leaders grew angry because the Temple guards refused their order to arrest Yeshua. Even when one of their own, Nicodemus, came to Yeshua’ defense, they still dismissed His claims saying, “A prophet does not come out of Galilee” (verse 52). Apparently, they had forgotten about Isaiah chapter 9: “There will be no more gloom for those who were in distress. In the past He humbled the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, but in the future He will honor Galilee of the Gentiles, by the way of the sea, along the Jordan. The people walking in darkness have seen a great light; of those living in the land of the shadow of death a light has dawned.” (Isaiah 9:1-2)

Yeshua used that very scripture to point to himself as the fulfillment of prophecy – A great Light. According to the Mishnah, gigantic candelabras stood within the temple court. Each of the four golden candelabras is said to have been about 75 feet tall! Each of the candelabra had four branches, and at the top of every branch there was a large bowl. Four young men bearing pitchers of oil would have to climb ladders to fill the four golden bowls on each candelabra. And then the oil in those bowls was ignited.

Remember that the Temple was on a hill above the rest of the city, so the glorious glow was a sight for the entire city to see. In addition to the light, Levitical musicians played their harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets to make joyful music to the Lord. The light was to remind the people of how God’s Shekinah glory had once filled His Temple. But in the person of Yeshua, God’s glory was once again present in that Temple. And He used that celebration to announce that very fact. As he was teaching in the temple court just after the Feast, (perhaps standing right next to those magnificent candelabras) he declared to all who were gathered there: “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.” (John 8:12)

Rabbinic Law encourages Jews to eat, live, and sleep in the sukkah for all seven days of the festival. (Weather and health permitting) Most modern Jews do not actually sleep in the sukkah; it is used instead as a special outdoor dwelling place for dining together with family and friends.

Sukkot and Thanksgiving

Sukkot is a harvest holiday, which means that the foods served are seasonal in nature. The Sukkot menu generally features vegetables and fruits that are harvested at the time of the season—apples, squash, eggplants, grapes, etc. The arrival of Sukkot ushers in the autumn season; Sukkot foods are inspired by the bounty of the harvest.

Does this sound a little familiar? You might have noticed that the Sukkot holiday resembles the American tradition of Thanksgiving. Believe it or not, the similarities between Sukkot and Thanksgiving actually have a historical frame of reference. Before coming to the New World, the Pilgrims lived for a short time among Sephardic Jews in Holland. In fact, there is historical evidence to suggest that our American Thanksgiving tradition was directly inspired by the Jewish holiday of Sukkot.

Both the Pilgrims and the Jews were victims of religious persecution. The Sephardic Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492; they scattered and eventually settled in different parts of Europe and the Middle East. This group of Sephardic Jews made Holland their home. The Pilgrims escaped England in 1608 to avoid the increasing intolerance of their Separatist views by the Bishop of Lincoln and Archbishop of York. Both the Jews and the Pilgrims settled in Holland because of the country’s religious tolerance.

The Pilgrims spent about a decade in Holland before leaving for the New World (America), but they were certainly there long enough to interact with the local Jewish population. The first Thanksgiving was likely inspired by Sukkot celebrations the Pilgrims witnessed while living among the Sephardic Jews of Holland.

This tie between Thanksgiving and Sukkot is pretty extraordinary, and can be seen on many levels. We are taught that the first Thanksgiving meal in 1621 was eaten out-of-doors, which would correspond to the Sukkot tradition of dining outside in the sukkah. We are also taught that the Pilgrims welcomed the Native Americans to their original Thanksgiving table.

Sukkot, like Thanksgiving, is a holiday of welcoming. God commanded Israel to build and dine in the sukkah. As I had mentioned earlier, Jewish families today decorate their sukkah with a variety of decorations including homemade ornaments, paintings, and streamers. But what if it was the Native Americans, who some believe were descendants of some of the tribes of Israel scattered during the Diaspora, who welcomed the Pilgrims to the original Thanksgiving table?  The Native American Tipi has four walls with a door on one side and an opening in the top. (Similar to the sukkah) Most tipis in a village would not be painted, but sometimes tipis were painted to depict personal experiences, such as war or hunting. Those known to be skilled painters were consulted, and a new design was made to fit anonymously within the traditional framework of the tribe’s painted tipis. The cornucopia, a Thanksgiving symbol of plenty, resembles the Jewish shofar that is blown during Rosh HaShannah, The New Year on the Hebrew calendar. Both Sukkot and Thanksgiving feature bountiful menus of delicious, seasonally-inspired foods.

God’s timing is perfect. His Appointed Feasts are full of meaning and value for all. – For the Jew and Non-Jew alike. For all of us who call on the name of Yeshua, we can drink even more deeply of God’s wonder by studying these times and by incorporating them into our worship practices. After all, it is these Feasts that God has appointed and set aside, and commanded to be observed “as a lasting ordinance throughout your generations.” (Exodus 12:14) And that “the same law applies to the native-born and to the alien living among you.” (Exodus 12:49) These days are not burdens, but blessings, gracious gifts from a loving Father to His children. And I pray that a little of the glory of this gift is revealed to you today.

Many today have refused to have their own darkness exposed by the light of God through His son, Yeshua. But there are those who are drawn to the light, whose hearts burn with the truth of Yeshua. And that light is still shining brightly today.

Lord God, King of the Universe, I pray that the light of Messiah will always burn brightly in our hearts, so that You might use us to ignite the hearts of others. As Your people celebrate this festival, may they come to know the One of whom all the festivals speak. May the living water of Yeshua Ha’Mashiach quench their thirst and fill them with the Spirit of the God of Israel. Amen.

(Some information taken from “Christ in the Feast of Tabernacles” by David Brinker)